One of the great things about living in San Diego is that you have access to ocean fishing here and also across the border. There are an array of choices. For the beginner, I recommend going on the half day boats in July and August. You can catch some calico bass, sand bass, barracuda, mackerel, and if you are lucky, a yellowtail. The boats take you out and provide live bait and some instruction on what to do to catch a fish.
Seaforth Landing and Point Loma are excellent venues. You can go for about $45 plus equipment and license which could cost an additional $25. The half day boats leave approximately around 8-12 or 12:30-5. You should check the website http://biteson.com/newlandings.html which has fish counts for most of the landings in San Diego along with prices and times of departure. I go out only when they are catching at least a couple fish per angler.
As you get more experience, you may want to buy your own equipment or go on a 3/4 day boat or even an overnight boat. It is a wonderful adventure out there. You never know what you will see – I have seen schools of thousands of dolphins, also whales and flying fish. Also I am always startled by the aggressiveness of the fish that are biting.